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What is the minimum distance to be maintained between two welds in a pipe?

Ans.: The rule of thumb is that the minimum distance between adjacent butt welds is 1 x D. If not, it is never closer than 1-1/2″. This is supposedly to prevent the overlap of HAZ s. Minimum spacing of circumferential welds between centerlines shall not be less than 4 [...]

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How to Calculate the Width of Pipe Rack?

Ans.: The following formula can be used as a thumb rule: W= (1+B) x (F x N x S + A) Where: F: Safety Factor                    = 1.5 If pipes are counted from PFD.                    = 2 If pipes are counted from P&ID. N: number of lines [...]

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Header Size and Branch type Recommendation

This table shows the branch and header recommendation. [...]

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Failure Modes of Base Plate

  The following figures represent failure modes of base plates:          You check which one?   [...]

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Lifting Lug Analysis

  You check which one? Add other failure modes [...]

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Support Types of Vessels

  1- Vertical Equipment  Leg: Application: Small vertical drums to very large vessels and spheres up to 80 feet in diameter such as Spherical Pressurized Storage Tanks The maximum ratio of support leg length to drum diameter is typically 2:1. Cross bracing between the legs is typically used to [...]

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